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MIXTURES, COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL CHANGES
Part 3 - Kid's Chemistry

Part 3 - Kid's Chemistry

                                  

Pat Kellogg Roller, Children's Science Specialist/Teacher/Retired
Pat Kellogg Roller, Children's Science Specialist/Teacher/Retired

Many American students avoid science subjects such as chemistry because they don't think they can pass them. They have no background at all. Elementary school science teachers usually skip the chemistry chapter because they too lack confidence. Many years ago I attended a summer school course which taught me how to teach chemistry to elementary kids.  It calls for creative problem solving skills as kids continue to learn how our planet works and chemistry is a very important of that process. "Kids love this chemistry" the results are" kid's chemistry kids" are "confident high school chemistry students."

 PART 3 – "KID’S CHEMISTRY"

             GRADES 4-8

MIXTURES, ELEMENTS, AND COMPOUNDS

JOIN US FOR - "easy, exciting, inexpensive, kids chemistry experiments" here in:  PART 3 - KID'S CHEMISTRY.

LIST OF HIGH INTEREST, EXCITING EXPERIMENTS IN THIS PART OF KID'S CHEMISTRY:


"AMAZING MYSTERY POWDERS" EXPERIMENTS

"BAGGIE BOMB AND ALKABOMB"

"BALLOON BLOW-UP AND DANCING WEIGHT LIFTERS"

"GREATEST SLIME EXPERIMENT" EVER

"GROW A PERFECT CRYSTAL SNOWFLAKE"

THE "INCREDIBLE EDIBLE ATOM IN MOLECULES"

"CALCULATE MOLECULAR WEIGHTS"

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

BACKGROUND INFORMATION


When two elements combine, a chemical reaction does not always occur between them. Instead, the two elements form a mixture in which the properties of the two elements are retained. Their atoms are not changed. (Air is a mixture. There are more mixtures than  anything else on earth.)

When a chemical reaction does take place, the two substances form a compound. A compound has physical and chemical properties that the individual substances do not have.

The two substances in a mixture can be separated, on the basis of differences in their physical properties. The substances in a compound, however, can only be separated, as a result of another chemical reaction.

In this investigation, you will observe how physical and chemical properties are affected when substances are combined.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ACID – BASE – NEUTRAL

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS:  Acids have a sour taste. Acids react with blue litmus paper turning it pink. Acids react with red cabbage juice indicator by turning it cranberry red. 

Examples of acids include: Water H2O (mildly acid), hydrochloric acid (Gastric juice that helps humans digest their food contains hydrochloric acid.)

Sulfuric Acid H2SO4   (Sulfuric acid is found in car batteries. It reacts with lead plates in the battery producing an electric charge to start your car.

Other common acids include: lemon juice, tomatoes, and Coca-Cola.

PROPERTIES OF BASES – Have a bitter taste, feel slippery, neutralize acids, turn red litmus paper blue. Turn red cabbage juice green or blue-green.

Common bases include:  Milk of Magnesia, household ammonia, Clorox bleach, oven cleaner, baking soda, most soaps and detergents

NEUTRAL – neither acid nor base, no color change in cabbage juice

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________



                                                   
MYSTERY POWDERS EXPERIMENT

LEARNER OUTCOMES: Students will observe, measure, classify, experiment, interpret, communicate, and practice safety procedures in all science activities.

Teacher note: We suggest students work together in groups of 4 or 5 with each student having a defined responsibility. Please refer to Part 1 – "Kid’s Chemistry" for a copy of “COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUP LAB” which lists the jobs.  Refer to the webpage CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT for information of setting up and managing a ‘hands-on’ science classroom.

MATERIALS: Baking Soda (Substance 1), Citric Acid (Fruit-Fresh) Substance 2, Sugar, (Substance 3), Epsom salts, (Substance 4), corn starch,(Substance 5)
5 baby food jars labeled 1,2,3,4,5, and 5 popsicle sticks or craft sticks, string, quart Ziploc baggies, scotch tape, paper towels, soapy water for clean-up, room temperature water, aluminum foil, teaspoon measurer

For Each Team of 4 Students: (ml) measuring cup (small ones work best), 5 small clear plastic, 30 ml (medicine cups etc…) 5 small stirring sticks labeled 1,2,3,4,5, one small medicine dropper bottle with red cabbage juice, or litmus paper, 4 hand lens, one lab sheet, 20 small squares of black construction paper (3x3”), two thermometers, 2 ziploc bags, 2 paper towels,
and a "Mystery Powders Chart" for each group of 4 or 5 students.     SEE MYSTERY POWDERS CHART BELOW.

 AMAZING MYSTERY POWDERS CHART

AMAZING MYSTERY POWDERS CHART

 List all acids ______________________ All bases __________________, All Neutral ____________
  
 KEEP TRACK WITH MYSTERY POWDERS CHART.

MATERIALS FOR TEACHER DEMONSTRATION: Birthday candles (2), clay for candle bases, matches, hot plate
                                   TEACHER PRE-LAB SETUP

1.Be sure the Fruit-Fresh (citric acid) and baking soda are fresh.

2.Prepare powders by setting up 5 baby food jars labeled 1,2,3,4,5. Tie a string around the neck of each jar and around a popsicle stick.
 
 3.Buy half of a red cabbage, boil it in water, mash on it to get reddish-purple juice, strain the juice and bottle it in 5 medicine bottles to use as an indicator for the acid-base-neutral tests. You may use litmus paper instead of red cabbage juice.

4.Prepare the squares of black construction paper. There should be enough for each student to have five with some extra.

5.Check the Ziploc bags to be sure they do not leak. Put water in them, zip, and turn upside down to test. Allow them to dry.
 
6.Set up student materials for easy access by the students; keeping the baby food jars of powders for you to dispense. Students tend to contaminate them when they do it.

7.Create 5 long handled aluminum foil spoons for burning the powders. Label them 1,2,3,4,5 

8. Run off enough "Mystery Powders Charts," and the "Big Grid" graph forms for each group of kids.

BUILD READING SKILLS: CREATE AND INTERPRET GRAPHS
      BUILD TECHNICAL READING SKILLS: CREATE AND INTERPRET GRAPHS

MYSTERY POWDERS LAB DAY ( It may take more than one lab day to complete these experiments.)

1. Pass out a "MYSTERY POWDERS CHART to each group of students with instructions to fill them out as they go. Show them how to do the first one by doing it together. (An overhead projector image works well.) 

PROCEDURE
2. For each student, place a tiny amount of Powder 1 on a square of construction paper. The student is to observe its physical properties with the hand-lens. Physical properties are: color, shape, size, texture. As a group, they pool information and fill in the lab sheet.

3. ACID-BASE-NEUTRAL TEST –Drop a few drops of cabbage juice indicator on Powder l. Record if it is acid, base, or neutral. (Acid turns cranberry red, base turns green or blue green, neutral does not change color. Record results on group lab sheet.

4. SOLUTION OR MIXTURE TEST – Have each student group label their five stirring sticks 1,2,3,4,5.  Have one student get a bit of Powder 1 on construction paper. Back in the group, a student will drop the powder into 20 ml water, stir with stick 1, and see if the powder dissolves in the water. (If it dissolves completely it is a solution, if it doesn’t it is a mixture.) Let it set a little while before deciding and marking the lab sheet. If it is a solution, it will be clear.

5. Repeat this procedure with powders 2, 3, 4, and 5.

6. Be sure students list all acids, all bases, all solutions, and all mixtures on the lab sheet as they work.

7. Discuss with students what they wrote on their charts. Review definitions. Tell students compounds are made of two or more elements combined to produce a new product. All five powders they tested are compounds.

8. Ask them if they can think of a way to separate a compound into its elements.

9. Hopefully, someone will suggest you burn the compound. If not, ask the students, “What do you think will happen if we burn the powders one at a time?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________


TESTING POWDERS WITH HEAT – Teacher Demonstration

1. OPEN THE WINDOWS, OR DO THE BURN TESTS OUTSIDE.

2. Ask students to write on the back of their lab sheets what happened to each powder when it was burned.

3. Place ¼ to ½ tsp. of Powder 1 in the aluminum foil spool marked 1.

4. Place over a lighted candle or a hot plate for a few minutes and record what happens.

Some of the compounds will change very little, if any. These are compounds, which cannot be broken apart using heat. Other compounds will liquefy producing smoke, then burn leaving only carbon behind. This means the other elements in the compound have changed into gases and have gone out into the air.

Example: C6H12O is a form of sugar. When burned, the elements hydrogen and oxygen go into the air and only carbon remains. So heat can break apart this compound.

5. Continue the burn test with powders 2,3,4,5 and record results.

6. Have designated team members clean up lab areas and replace materials and equipment.

7. Complete observations and conclusion,  and turn in lab sheets.

8. OBSERVATIONS: By experimenting what did you learn about the solutes (powders).  Together create a graph showing how many were mixtures, how many were solutions.

9. Teacher Note - Pass out a graph grid to each group of students. Using an overhead projector or computer, teach them how to create the graph by looking back and interpreting from the "Mystery Powders Chart." Check to see how they are doing as you go along. Help as needed.

10. CONCLUSION: How are elements and compounds alike, different?
(An element is made of only one kind of atom. A compound is made of two or more different elements joined chemically to produce a new and different product.)

11. ASK THE STUDENTS IF THEY WOULD LIKE TO USE TWO OF THESE POWDERS TO TRY TO MAKE A CHEMICAL REACTION WHICH CREATES A GAS IN THE REACTION.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________


GAS IN A BAGGIE

1. Give each group 2 ziploc baggies.

2.  EACH BAGGIE group will need: 2 teaspoons of baking soda and 1 teaspoon of citric acid (Fruit Fresh). Have them load the baggies separately with the powders.

3. Stick a thermometer into the bag and record the temperature of the powders. Be sure the bulb is covered with powder.

4. Have them measure 30 ml of room temperature water and measure the temperature of the water. Record this temperature.

5. Have them add the 30 ml of water to the bag of powders and quickly zip the bag up tightly.

6. Take the temperature of the bubbling substance from the outside of the bag at these intervals: 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes, 5 minutes, 6 minutes. Record each temperature.

Bubbling fizzing gas begins to fill the bag.
Bubbling, fizzing gas begins to fill the bag!

7. DO NOT OPEN THE BAGS UNTIL I TELL YOU TO. THERE IS ANOTHER EXPERIMENT IN YOUR BAGS!


8. Ask students to describe what happened in the chemical reaction. (Bubbling, fizzing gas began to fill the bag and it expanded.)

9. Ask students what happened to the temperature during the reaction and after. 

Answers should be something like this. Room temp. water: 23.5o Celsius. Powders temp. 23.5o Celsius.

During reaction:
1 minute: 14o Celsius
2 minutes: 8o Celsius
3 minutes: 6o Celsius
4 minutes: 4o Celsius
End of reaction – bubbling and fizzing stop
5 minutes: 6o Celsius (Temperature starts to increase again)

Teacher Note: Kids learn "Technical Reading Skills", as they build and interpret graphs.

10. Ask students to share their observations. Then, as a class, create a graph to show what happened to the temperature during and after the reaction.

COLLECT THE BAGS OF GAS FROM THE STUDENT GROUPS.

11.Ask the students to predict what will happen when a bag of gas is opened onto a burning candle. (They usually say when the baggie bomb gas reachers the flame it will explode with a loud pop!)

                                                             BAGGIE BOMB
                                       
                                                                       GAS IN A BAGGIE

1. TEACHER DEMONSTRATION: Put the candle in the clay base, light it, and open a bag near the flame. (If you did it right the flame will go out.)
If the flame does not go out, try another baggie of gas and position it a little differently. You have 5 bags of gas or more so don’t worry. If none of the bags of gas go out, just set up the experiment in another bag, collect more gas and try again. The baggie gas should put out the flame.

2. TELL THE STUDENTS THE GAS CREATED DURING THE CHEMICAL REACTION WAS CARBON DIOXIDE  (CO2) which contains one carbon atom and 2 oxygen atoms chemically combined, per molecule, of the gas. Tell students molecules are very small.

3. Review everything you have done during these experiments with  “Mystery Powders.” Review all the vocabulary that was taught in the experiments. See background.  Give each of the groups a review they can work together.   Test students individually. Have students who finish early read for poor readers.

4. Hopefully, you will be amazed, excited and proud of your students!

_____________________________________END_________________________________________________________________

BUILD A "BAGGIE BOMB", THEN BUILD AN "ALKABOMB".

EXPERIMENT 1 – BAGGIE BOMB

TEACHER DEMONSTRATION  (Until I had lots of experience I always practiced putting out the flame so The experiment before my students would progress smoothly.)

MATERIALS:  2-3 quart size Ziploc baggies, room temperature water, ml measurer (medicine cups work well), birthday candle, clay, matches, fresh Alka-Seltzer tabl


WILL THE BAGGIE BOMB PUT OUT THE CANDLE FLAME?
WILL THE "BAGGIE BOMB" PUT OUT THE FLAME?

PROCEDURE:

1. Pour
a small amount of water (20 ml) into the bag.

2. Drop an alka-seltzer tablet in and quickly zip up the bag.

3. Ask students what they observed. (Fizzing, bubbling began and the bag began to expand.

4. Ask them to guess what is making the bag expand? (a gas is being given off from the chemical reaction inside the bag.)

5. Light the birthday candle set in clay.

6. Ask the students what will happen when you open the bag near the flame.

7. Quickly tilt the bag at an angle close to the flame, open the bag part way and allow the gas to escape onto the flame.

8. What happened? (The flame went out.)

9. Tell them the gas created in the reaction was carbon dioxide gas.

10. Ask students what carbon dioxide gas does to a flame.  (it puts it out.)

11. Ask the students if this is a physical change or a chemical change. (chemical)

12. How do you know? (There was a chemical reaction and a gas was given off.)

13. Was this a mixture? (No, because the alka-seltzer completely dissolved in the water.

A mixture happens when two or more substances are put together but the atoms of the substances do not change. If you put a solid in a liquid and the solid does not dissolve completely then it is a mixture.

There are more mixtures on our planet than anything else. Air is a mixture of solids and gases.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________


EXPERIMENT 2 -"ALKABOMB"

Note to Teacher – If you decide to allow your students to do this experiment, it must be done in the gym or outdoors.

Safety rules must be followed.

Each student will need to wear goggles.

MATERIALS: SAFETY GOGGLES, ALKA-SELTZER TABLETS, 35 MM FILM CANISTERS / PILL BOTTLES WITH SNAP ON LIDS, WATER
(Wal-Mart people  gave me a variety of plastic pill bottles with pop off lids free for this experiment.)

Ask students to describe what happened in the baggie bomb experiment.

Ask students this, “WHAT DO YOU THINK WILL HAPPEN IF WE PUT ALKA-SELTZER AND WATER INTO A MUCH SMALLER CONTAINER THAN A BAGGIE?

ALKABOMB EXPERIMENT
         ALKABOMB EXPERIMENT SETUP

PROCEDURE:

1. Have students write their predictions on their lab sheet.

2. Have the “Materials Manager” from each group of 4-5 students pick up the following materials for their group.

( Near the end of Part 1 – Kid’s Chemistry, there is a “COOPERATIVE GROUPS LEARNING LAB” sheet, which shows how to organize your students in groups so each child has a job to do.) In the pages list on our website there is a: CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT page, which helps you set up very inexpensively to do science activities and experiments.

½  alka-seltzer tablet

Goggles for each student

1 film can or pill canister with lid

20 ml room temperature water

3. Move outdoors or to the gym with the students.

4. Have students practice getting the lid on the container quickly and completely.
5. Tell students to put the alka-seltzer tablet in the container, pour the 20 ml water in, then quickly snap on the lid, set the bottle down and move away.

(The tops will explode off the containers with a loud popping sound.)

The same chemical reaction happened as with the baggie, but since the space was so small inside the can, the pressure of the gas built until it popped the top off.

6.Ask students to predict what will happen if you use the same amount of alka-seltzer and water but put it in a larger container.

7. Try this experiment. Students will see the lids pop off but the popping sound is not quite as loud as the larger bottle reduced the gas pressure  a little.

CHALLENGE: Ask students to work in their groups and design a fire extinguisher which will use alka-seltzer and water and when needed will put out a larger fire. Have student groups share their drawings and how to work the extinguisher with the class.
Hopefully, they will come up with a design which will keep the ingredients separate until the extinguisher needs to be used.
 
__________________________________________________________END_____________________________________

                              
"CHEMICAL CHANGES" - "BALLOON BLOW-UP AND DANCING WEIGHTLIFTERS"

PURPOSE 

To collect gas from a chemical reaction in a balloon, then use this gas to put out a flame.


To observe moving bubbles as they become weight lifters.

See Part 1 – Kid’s Chemistry (at the end) for a copy of the “Cooperative Learning Lab ” paper. It shows how to organize group work.
See Classroom Management on our website for information on how to set up an inexpensive “inquiry – hands-on” science classroom.
                                                           
BALLOON BLOW-UP

MATERIALS: A clear glass bottle with a narrow neck (I used a pint vinegar bottle). Vinegar, Baking Soda, Funnel or Straw, Water, Balloon, clay, birthday candle, matches

PROCEDURE:

Pour about an inch of liquid – half vinegar, half water, into the clear glass bottle.
 VINEGAR AND WATER IN BOTTLE, BAKING SODA IN BALLOON, READY TO LOAD!
VINEGAR AND WATER IN BOTTLE, BAKING SODA IN BALLOON, READY TO LOAD BALLOON BLOWUP!
 
1. Use a funnel to fill the balloon half full of baking soda. (Or use a straw by sticking it into the baking soda, then put your finger over the top of the straw. Lift the straw out, put into the balloon, and blow or tap gently.

2. Stretch the open end of the balloon over the neck of the glass bottle. Make sure it is on tight. Let the heavy end of the balloon dangle, so no baking soda goes into the bottle.

3. Hold onto the balloon at the bottle- neck, and pick up the heavy part of the balloon so that all the baking soda falls into the vinegar at the bottom of the bottle.

4. Wow! Hear that fizz? There must be thousands of bubbles!
 
  BAKING SODA IN BALLOON DUMPED INTO VINEGAR - BALLOON BLOW-UP!
BALLOON BAKING SODA DUMPED INTO VINEGAR, BALLOON BLOW-UP!

5. Look at what is happening to the balloon…

6. Ask students to describe what happened.
                                                 
TESTING THE GAS


7. Put candle in a lump of clay and light it.

8. Ask students what will happen if the balloon gas blows onto the lit candle.

9. Hold the end of the balloon so the gas stays inside, lift it off the bottle, and gently release the gas near the flame. What happened?

What gas was released in the chemical reaction? (carbon dioxide)

What does carbon dioxide do to a flame? (puts it out)

CHALLENGE students to use what happened to design a Fire Extinguisher which uses baking soda and vinegar. Let them work in groups. Have them share their designs and explain how they work.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                     

"DANCING WEIGHT LIFTERS"

PURPOSE: To observe the action of bubbles on the raisins.

MATERIALS: For each group of students:
Clear plastic cups, enough 7-up, or Ginger Ale to fill the cup
A few raisins
Alka-Seltzer tablets and water

Note to the teacher: Shake the cans a little before you open them and immediately pour the contents into the cups and ask students to drop the raisins in the cups of soda.

What are the bubbles in the glass doing? (Tiny bubbles form all over the raisins, and in a few minutes; the raisins begin to dance. Then they float up to the top of the soda. If you tap the side of the cup, they’ll sink again.

Who are the weight lifters in this experiment? (the bubbles)

How long can you keep the raisins dancing?

PRACTICAL APPLICATION:

Why do people with indigestion take Alka-Seltzer?  Put an alka-seltzer tablet in a cup of water and see what happens.
The Alka-Seltzer makes the water fizz with many bubbles. This fizzy liquid gets into your intestines faster than other liquids. The bubbles in the soda tickle the exit valve in your stomach, and it opens.

This process helps the indigestion go away.  
 

______________________________________________END________________________________________________________
 

KID’S CHEMISTRY: COMPOUNDS – Physical and Chemical Changes

(Grades 4-8)

"THE GREATEST SLIME EXPERIMENT" EVER.

Difficulty:  Easy      Time: 45 minutes, including play time.

FOCUS: Kids learn how to list Physical Properties of matter; how to determine if the change in the matter is physical or chemical; and if the new product is a mixture or a compound. They also develop skills in experimenting and recording the results.
 
     MATERIALS FOR GREATEST SLIME EXPERIMENT EVER
  MATERIALS FOR GREATEST SLIME EXPERIMENT EVER
 
Materials Needed: (One batch makes enough for 8-10 students. you will need:

20 Mule Team Borax, (not Borax Soap), water, gallon Ziploc bags, Elmer’s White Liquid Glue, Liquid Starch, Food Coloring,

trays (lunchroom?), Strainer to wash it with, and soapy water, towels for cleanup, thermometer (one per group)


PROCEDURE:

1. First examine the starch and glue individually and write the physical properties of each. (Color, smell, shape, state, (solid,liquid or gas,) texture, and temperature.


2. Record the temperature of the starch and glue from outside the bag. (Record)
 

 MIX SLIME MATERIALS VERY WELL FROM OUTSIDE THE BAG
 FOR PERFECT SLIME, MIX SLIME MATERIALS WELL FROM OUTSIDE THE BAG

(4-5 students could make a half batch of the Slime.)

3.Pour 250 ml Elmer’s Liquid Glue in a Ziploc baggy, and add a few drops of food coloring.(Half-batch is 125 ml glue to 100 ml starch.)

4.Add 200 ml liquid starch to the baggy.Half a batch would be 100 ml. starch. Zip it up, and mix it well from the outside. This takes nearly 10 minutes.

5.After it is mixed together well, take the temperature of the slime from outside the bag. Record.
 
 PERFECT SLIME IN 10 MINUTES
 PERFECT SLIME IN TEN MINUTES

6.Remove the slime from the bag, wash it well, and lay it out on a tray for 10 minutes. It sets up quickly and is easy to wash. It is not sticky or messy.

7.Divide the slime into several pieces and give it to the students to play with to see how it responds.

8.Give each group a centimeter ruler.

9.Have a few Meter Sticks handy. (Could use yard sticks.)

10.Decide where to begin on the ruler, and shape the slime into a short cylinder shape.
 
 MEASURING SLIME FLOW RATE
 MEASURE SLIME FLOW RATE

11.Hold the slime at the top of the ruler and watch it flow.

12 When it breaks, record how far it flowed. Some kids needed a meter stick!

It may be kept in a Ziploc bag overnight and the next experiment performed in a day or so. It sets up well, but when worked a bit with the hands, it can be formed into ball shapes.

GOING FARTHER:

Slime may be formed into balls, then bounced to see which ball will bounce highest as measured by a meter stick. How does the shape of the sphere affect its bounce?

Vocabulary: viscosity, elasticity, bounce ability, chemical change, physical change, physical properties.

All matter may be described by its PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
 

Questions:

1. Is this a mixture or a compound?

 
2. Can it be easily undone? (If so, it is probably a mixture.) Can you get each ingredient back as it was? __________________________________
 
3. Is it a new and different substance than the individual ingredients?  _____

4. How is it different than before the experiment?  (If the ingredients have interacted chemically it is a Chemical Change.) Clue: Did the slime get warmer or colder when mixed?­­­________________ Did the shape change? _________Texture change? ___________,

5. Color Change? ____________
Make a sound? ________
A temperature change is an indicator of a chemical change.
 

6. Can it be easily undone? (If so, it is probably a mixture.) Can you get each ingredient back as it was? __________________________________
 
7. Is it a new and different substance than the individual ingredients?  _____

8. How is it different than before the experiment? (If the ingredients have interacted chemically it is a Chemical Change.) Clue: Did the slime get warmer or colder when mixed?­­­________________ Did the shape change? _________Texture change? ___________,

9. Color Change? ____________ Make a sound
? ________ 
 
________________________________________END______________________________________________________________


Have some fun with a"pretty crystal snowflake" outcome.


                                   
                                    
                                    A " PRETTY CRYSTAL SNOWFAKE" READY FOR THE CHRISTMAS TREE!

GROW A BORAX CRYSTAL SNOWFLAKE

You will need:
20 Mule Team Laundry Booster Borax (don't get borax soap) hot water, string, wide mouth jar (pint), white pipe cleaners, pencils, food coloring, scissors

Teacher Note - It is easier if you go about the room putting the laundry booster into each jar one tablespoon at a time. Have them keep track of how many spoons as they stir each tablespoon as it is added until it completely dissolves.

The students working in groups of 4-5 students per group will need 2 pint jars, 2 pencils, 2 pieces of string, access to the 20 Mule Team Laundry Booster, hot water to fill the jars (teacher please pour this), 3 tablespoon measurer and a dry tablespoon measurer for dropping the booster into the jars. The students use their spoons to stir with.

Time required: 15-20 minutes to set up, then wait overnight for the crystals to form. It may take a bit longer. If you can put them into the refrigerator, crystals will form faster.
 
 
PROCEDURE:

1. Cut the pipe cleaner into 3 equal sections to make a snowflake shape. Trim as necessary.

2. Twist the sections together to make a snowflake shape which fits inside the jar. Trim it until it will hang freely in the jar without touching the sides or bottom.

3. Tie the string to the end of one snowflake arm. Tie the other end to the pencil. Make the string long enough for it to hang the snowflake inside the jar.Be sure the snowflake does not touch the bottom of the jar.
 

 THIS SNOWFLAKE CRYSTAL IS STUCK TO THE BOTTOM OF THE JAR BECAUSE THE STRING WAS TOO LONG!

THIS SNOWFLAKE CRYSTAL STUCK TO THE BOTTOM OF THE JAR BECAUSE THE STRING WAS TOO LONG

4. Fill the jar with boiling water. Add borax booster one tablespoon at a time and stir until it is dissolved.

To make a saturated solution keep adding one tablespoon of borax at a time, keep stirring until it is dissolved, until no more will dissolve and a bit of the powder lies in the bottom of the jar. It could take 6-8 tablespoons.

5. Don’t put the food coloring in until the solution is ready. You need to be able to see the bottom of the jar to know when you have put enough borax in, as a little will settle in the bottom of the jar when it hits saturation.

6. Hang the snowflake in the jar so it is completely covered with the mixture and hangs freely away from the bottom of the jar.

7. Put the jars in the refrigerator and leave them there undisturbed, for a day or so. Here in the cold, it becomes super-saturated and more borox settles to the bottom. So your crystal could get stuck to the bottom unless your short string prevents that from happening.

 BEAUTIFUL PERFECT SNOWFLAKE CRYSTAL

BEAUTIFUL PERFECT SNOWFLAKE CRYSTAL

8. This crystal snowflake lasts a long time. Hang it in a sunny window and it will sparkle like a real snowflake!  Could you trim a Christmas tree with them?

Sugar or salt may be used in place of borax but it takes a lot longer to grow.

Save the borax laundry booster for making other good stuff like “SLIME”!

Why put it in the refrigerator? Much more solute (borax) will dissolve in hot water than in cold. So in the refrigerator, the solution becomes super-saturated as 4 times more borax will dissolve in hot water than in cold water. Crystals grow best and fastest  in super-saturated solutions.
 
About 20 Mule Team Laundry Booster:

Borax is a naturally occurring mineral composed of sodium, boron, oxygen, and water.

Sodium, boron, and oxygen are elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements.

 Draw a picture of an atom of each one with the protons (P), neutrons (O) and  (-) electrons inside.  The elements hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) combine to make water (H2O. Two atoms of hydrogen plus one atom of oxygen makes one molecule of water.

Look back at PART 1 - KID'S CHEMISTRY for a PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS. Draw a picture of one atom each of sodium, boron, oxygen, and hydrogen. The Mystery Atom models show you how to do this in Part 1 - Kid's Chemistry.  These are the elements used to create the mineral we call borax.

Borax first appeared in history 4000 years ago. It remains in use today in house cleaning, and in the laundry room. It is effective and versatile. END

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MAKING MODELS OF THE INCREDIBLE EDIBLE ATOM” IN MOLECULES

PURPOSE: The student will make models of  MOLECULES of common compounds in order to understand that compounds are made of atoms of elements joined together chemically such that they produce a new and different product than the atoms of the elements individually.

MATH SKILLS: geometry and counting

SCIENCE PROCESSES: observing and interpreting data

MATERIALS: toothpicks, gumdrops or colored small marshmallows (in different colors,) Periodic Table Of The Elements, (There is a Periodic Table of the Elements in Part 1- Kid’s Chemistry.), formulas and names of common compounds, Cooperative Learning Groups Lab (This is also at the end of Part 1 Chemistry for Kids, worksheet “Molecule Models

KEY QUESTIONS: What is a molecule? Do molecules have different shapes? Molecules of one substance are different from molecules of another. Molecules of salt are different from molecules of sugar.

BACKGROUND:

Molecules are made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are parts of an element. Elements are simple substances that cannot be broken up into anything more simple by ordinary chemical reactions. Elements are often called the "building blocks of matter.”

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PROCEDURE

1.Develop a key for the color you will use to identify each element.

CANDY COLOR KEY FOR MAKING MODELS OF MOLECULES
CANDY COLOR CODE KEY FOR MAKING MODEL MOLECULES

2. Have the students choose gumdrops in those colors on the  key on each model of a compound they create.

3. Identify colors you will use for hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.

4. Pass out the materials and together make a model of water, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide molecules.

5.Then let the students choose a molecule of a compound other than those you did together; which they wish to build. Be sure they identify it by its formula and name.

6. Have each group of students show and tell what molecules they built.Tell them to write the name of the compound, and the formula name of the molecule, sign their name and DISPLAY THEM ON A LARGE TABLE.

     THE INCREDIBLE EDIBLE ATOM IN MOLECULES

THE "ENCREDIBLE EDIBLE ATOM" IN MOLECULES ON DISPLAY TABLE
Repeat as time allows.



PICTURES OF SOME COMMON EARTH MOLECULES

(Actually atoms join together in very specific ways; however, at this state of learning, it is enough if the students understand that atoms of elements join together to create new and different substances called compounds, and that compounds are useful to us.)


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                                                                                    COMMON COMPOUNDS


NaCl – Table salt ( 1 Na atom, l Cl atom)

SiO2 –Sand (1 Si atom, 2 Oxygen atoms)

H2O – Water (2 Hydrogen atoms, 1 Oxygen atom

C6H12O- Glucose ( a simple sugar)

CO2 – Carbon Dioxide

CH2COOH – Vinegar

NaHCO2 – Baking Soda

NH3 – Ammonia

HCl – Hydrochloric Acid

C8H18 – Gasoline

Fe2O3 – Rust

ZnO – Zinc Oxide

(Eating incredible edible atom molecules is almost as much fun as making them.)

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                                                             "CALCULATE  MOLECULAR WEIGHT"  OF COMPOUNDS                      

PURPOSE:
The purpose of this activity is to learn how to calculate the Molecular Weight of a Chemical Compound.

BACKGROUND:

The Molecular Weight (also referred to as the Formula Weight) of a chemical compound is calculated by adding the atomic weights of the atom’s elements that make up the compound.

MATERIALS: IN PART 1 - KID'S CHEMISTRY THERE IS A GOOD PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENT. You will also need paper and pencil.

What is the molecular weight of Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)?


Given Atomic Weights: C = 12, O = 16, Na = 23  (Round each weight off to the nearest whole number after getting it from the Periodic Table of the Elements).

Molecular Weight of Na2CO3 = (2 x Atomic Weight of Na) + (Atomic Weight of C) + (3 x Atomic Weight of O) = (2 x 23) + 12 + (3 x 16) = 106

Note that the Atomic Weight of an element is the number of times an atom of an element is heavier than an atom of hydrogen. Thus, hydrogen is treated as the reference, whose atomic weight is taken as 1

Skills: Observing, math computation, interpretation

Use instructions in the background, and some given below to work computing Molecular Weight of different compounds. Work in your groups, and help each other. Check your math.

PROCEDURE:

1.Using the Periodic Table of the Elements, find the molecular weight of the chemical compounds below:

Water (H2O)

Salt (NaCl)

Baking Soda (NaHCO3)

Clorox Bleach (NaOCl)

Vinegar (CH3COOH

Rubbing Alcohol (CH3OH)

Alcohol (C2H5OH)

Aspirin (C6H4COOCH3COOH)

Answers to a few of them: (Water 18), (Salt 58), (Baking Soda 84), Household Bleach (64),
If you have trouble, go back to the example under background above.

 
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